Hormones and the Endocrine System

The endocrine system uses hormones to control and coordinate your body's internal metabolism (or homeostasis) energy level, reproduction, growth and development, and response to injury, stress, and environmental factors. Consider the following hormones and their role in the workings of the endocrine system:

Where the hormone is produced

Hormone(s) secreted

Hormone function

Adrenal glands

Aldosterone

Regulates salt, water balance, and blood pressure

Adrenal glands

Corticosteroid

Controls key functions in the body; acts as an anti-inflammatory; maintains blood sugar levels, blood pressure, and muscle strength; regulates salt and water balance

Pituitary gland

Antidiuretic hormone (vasopressin)

Affects water retention in kidneys; controls blood pressure

Pituitary gland

Adrenocorticotropin

Controls production and secretion of adrenal cortex hormones (cortisol and aldosterone)

Pituitary gland

Growth hormone (GH)

Affects growth and development; stimulates protein production; affects fat distribution

Pituitary gland

Luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)

Controls reproductive functioning and sexual characteristics

Pituitary gland

Oxytocin

Stimulates contraction of uterus and milk ducts in the breast

Pituitary gland

Prolactin

Initiates and maintains milk production in breasts; impacts sex hormone levels

Pituitary gland

Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)

Stimulates the production and secretion of thyroid hormones

Kidneys

Renin and angiotensin

Controls blood pressure

Kidneys

Erythropoietin

Affects red blood cell (RBC) production

Pancreas

Glucagon

Raises blood sugar levels

Pancreas

Insulin

Lowers blood sugar levels; stimulates metabolism of glucose, protein, and fat

Ovaries

Estrogen

Affects development of female sexual characteristics and reproductive development

Ovaries

Progesterone

Stimulates the lining of the uterus for fertilization; prepares the breasts for milk production

Parathyroid glands

Parathyroid hormone (PTH)

Affects bone formation and excretion of calcium and phosphorus

Thyroid gland

Thyroid hormone

Affects growth, maturation, nervous system activity, and metabolism

Adrenal glands

Epinephrine

Increases heart rate, oxygen intake, and blood flow

Adrenal glands

Norepinephrine

Maintains normal body activities

Testes (testicles)

Testosterone

Develop and maintain male sexual characteristics and maturation

Pineal gland

Melatonin

May play a role in gonadotropin (sex hormones) regulation

Hypothalamus

Growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH)

Regulates growth hormone release in the pituitary gland

Hypothalamus

Thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH)

Regulates thyroid stimulating hormone release in the pituitary gland

Hypothalamus

Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH)

Regulates LH/FSH production in the pituitary gland

Hypothalamus

Corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH)

Regulates adrenocorticotropin release in the pituitary gland

Thymus

Humoral factors

Helps develop the lymphoid system